Wednesday, July 26, 2017

Challenges & Opportunities for Zambian Women Entrepreneurs (Part 2)

In the pre-independence days in Zambia, there were a very small number of businessmen who could be called entrepreneurs. By the time of independence, Zambia did not have businessmen and women who were experienced in handling complex businesses. African businesses only started to grow when a cash economy became the standard for business transactions. Zambia gained its independence with a less than well-developed African bourgeoisie, ill-equipped to administer the economy (Chipungu, 1992:174-175).

The Zambian Government has developed a Gender Policy in order to facilitate the process of removing gender imbalances. This is in recognition of the need for equal and full participation of women and men at all levels of national development. Government has put in place policies that facilitate entrepreneurship training programmes for both women and men. Some women are forced to engage in petty trading which is not very profitable. This problem has been exacerbated by women's insufficient participation in the various decision-making bodies of commerce, trade and industry, lack of entrepreneurial skills and gender stereotyping because of negative cultural attitudes and limited access to education (Gender in Development Division, 2000:48, 77).

In the 1990s political and economic transformation in Southern-African countries led to shifts from command to demand economies and dictatorships to democracy. These changes created economic opportunities for women who wanted to own and operate their own businesses. Zambia has developed policies that provide a policy framework for entrepreneurship development. These are the Technical Education, Vocational and Entrepreneurship Training (TEVET) Policy, the Commercial, Industrial and Trade Policy and the Small and Micro-Entreprise (SME) Policy. The TEVET Policy addresses issues of disadvantaged groups such as women, youths, persons with disabilities and retrenches as needing policy interventions in order to undertake entrepreneurial activities (Ministry of Science, Technology, and Vocational Training, 1998:10). The Commercial, Trade and Industrial Policy has a policy objective of assisting domestic firms to increase their levels of efficiency and competitiveness, and therefore withstand increasing competition in domestic and international markets (Ministry of Commerce, Trade and Industry, 2005:33). The SME Policy 

Women are active participants in the small and micro enterprises (SME) sector throughout the world, especially those running informal enterprises. However, research has shown that women entrepreneurs face particular socio-cultural, educational and technical constraints to starting, and growing their own enterprises (International Labour Organisation, 2003:1). This study differs from the one conducted by ILO as the focus of that study was on enhancing the contribution of women entrepreneurs to the creation of meaningful and sustainable employment opportunities and poverty reduction. This study focuses on enhancing the business management of women entrepreneurs so that they have equal opportunities as their male counterparts in contributing to the socio-economic development of Zambia. The study also seeks to provide policy recommendations for the further development of entrepreneurship in general and women's entrepreneurship in Zambia in particular. Currently there is lack of a strong policy framework that supports the growth of an entrepreneurial culture among Zambians and growth of women's entrepreneurship development.

Gabriel Konayuma
27 July 2017

Sunday, July 23, 2017

Challenges & Opportunities for Zambian Women Entrepreneurs: (Part 1)

A number of articles have been written on women entrepreneurship internationally. Watson (2002:91) has researched on a comparison of the performance of male- and female-controlled businesses and found that there is no significant difference between male- and female-controlled businesses with respect to total assets and the return on assets. Kantor (2002:131) has written on gender, micro enterprise success and cultural context from a South Asian perspective, demonstrating weaknesses in the ability of orthodox micro-enterprise development theory to represent issues relevant to women's success in the sector. Menzies, Diochon and Gasse (2004:89) have examined venture-related myths concerning women entrepreneurs. Their findings were that women do not have the right educational background to start large business and started businesses unattractive to venture capitalists.

Studies on entrepreneurship, finance and gender have been undertaken (Marlow and Patton, 2005:717). This study found that women entrepreneurs entering self-employment are disadvantaged by their gender. Other studies include constraints faced by women small business owners. The study identifies small size, limited prospects for growth and profitability (Coleman, 2002:151). On a more general level, Jalbert (2000:3) has written on women in the global economy as being an emerging force that policy makers cannot afford to ignore. She further states that economic globalisation has encouraged the expansion of the female business (Jalbert, 2000:6).

In Africa, Fick (2002) and Kiggundu (2002) have written on Entrepreneurship in Africa. Kiggundu (2002:239-240) discusses entrepreneur attributes relevant for success or failure as including demographic variables, psychological factors work behaviour and core competencies. Also discussed are structural weaknesses common to African owned firms and the operational and strategic impediment faced by female entrepreneurs.

Very little has been written about women entrepreneurs in Zambia. Notable studies have been those by Walker (1998:10) focusing on the changes and effects of the macro-economic policy as it relates to indigenous female entrepreneurs in Zambia in the agricultural sector. In another study, the International Labour Organisation (ILO) (2003:xv) sought to identify ways in which the government, the ILO, donors, non-governmental organisations (NGOs), and the private sector could improve the prospects for women's entrepreneurship in Zambia and enhance the contribution of women entrepreneurs to the creation of meaningful and sustainable employment opportunities and poverty reduction.
                                                                                               ©Gabriel Konayuma,                                                                                                              25 July 2017
(This article is based on a study that I did in 2006 towards my Master of Business Administration degree)

Monday, May 29, 2017

Collaborating Using Technology by e/Merge Africa Planning Team

For slightly over 5 years I have been involved in the e/Merge Africa Planning team. e/Merge Africa is a network of educational technology professionals in Africa who seek to improve their professional practice. e/Merge Africa normally organises online seminars that are conducted by educational technology professionals within and outside Africa. There are at least two such seminars organized every month. e/Merge Africa also facilitates an Online seminar “Facilitating Online” which is held twice a year. The aim of this seminar is to provide knowledge and skills to educators who are involved in facilitating online learning or are planning to do so.

e/Merge Africa Team during a Planning meeting

There is one face-to-face conference that is organized at least once a year. This for the past 5 years has been at the annual eLearning Africa Conference. These face to face seminars offer educational professionals the opportunity to discuss real challenges faced in their workplace with professionals who help them think through their challenges and have possible solutions.  My involvement with e/Merge Africa has been to be country co-ordinator for Zambia. This has involved me telling teaching and management staff in the Technical and Vocational Education and Training sector about the benefits of networking with educational technology professionals in Africa that e/Merge Africa offers through the online and face-to-face seminars. My full-time job involves the promotion of increasing access and enhancing quality in TVET through opportunities such as Open and Distance Learning and eLearning. As such I am able to encourage TVET staff especially those falling under the Ministry I work for: Ministry of Higher Education to take advantage of the opportunities that are offered by e/Merge Africa to gain new knowledge and skills in using technology for teaching and learning.

e/Merge Africa team at the Emerging Technologies Conference in Cape Town, 2015

The e/Merge Africa Planning Team is made up of staff from Egypt, Kenya, Nigeria, Zambia and South Africa. Being scattered in almost all the major regions of Africa, the team has learned to use the affordances of technology in planning for the various e/Merge Africa events. One of the most popular apps used has been Google Hangout. We use this app to have planning meetings. We normally use the text function to discuss various issues and also use the audio and video function to enhance our discussions when need arise. We have a Hangout group for this purpose. We have also used WhatsApp for our discussions. Another app we have used is Google docs when we collaborating on  documents generated by one or a number of us. These and many other apps have enabled us to collaborate across a wide geographical area with different time zones. When we have our face-to-face meetings at least once a year it does help to consolidate the online collaboration we have being doing. I would recommend others e.g. educators with a nation, region or in Africa to consider learning something from how we have used technology to collaborate though scattered across Africa.

Gabriel S Konayuma, 29/05/2017

Monday, January 2, 2017

Attending eLearning Africa Conference in Egypt

Arriving in Cairo
In May 2016, it was my joy and privilege to attend the 11th eLearning Africa Conference in Cairo, Egypt. I was able to attend the Conference with the support of the e/Merge Africa Network of which I am part of the co-ordinating team. Travel to Cairo was almost like the legendary Cape to Cairo as I first flew to Johannesburg using South African Airways and then connected from Johannesburg to Cairo using Egypt Air. Those that have transited through OR Tambo International Airport before will realize that it is a busy airport and has a lot to offer the traveller who would want to shop, relax and eat a good meal before the next flight. I was able to meet my niece and the husband with their kids on my return flight from Cairo at the airport where we had a nice breakfast meal. Flying from Johannesburg to Cairo took a total of almost seven hours. We landed in Cairo at about 04 00 AM and settled in our hotel by about 07 00 AM. 

Conference Venue
The eLearning Africa Conference was held at the majestic Royal Kempinski Hotel. I would not be exaggerating to say that it was one of the best Conference venues where the eLearning Africa Conference has been held. Definitely it had one of the best rest rooms I have seen in a Conference venue with a place to hang coats and some warm face cloths to dry one’s hands after their business in the rest rooms. The meals were excellent and the Conference hosts were on point. Those that are familiar with Arabian hospitality know that they go out of their way to make visitors feel at home. This I experienced on the flight, at the Conference venue and at the hotel.

Conference Highlights
The highlights of the Conference were:

  • The Keynote speeches that were delivered.
  • The Spotlight sessions. I especially enjoyed the sessions that were done by Professor Johannes Cronje of the Cape Peninsula University of Technology (CPUT) and Dr. Maggie de Beukes of the University of Namibia. Prof. Cronje spoke on how he had taken advantage of the #feesmustfall Campaign in South African universities to engage with students, using technology with social media such as WhatsApp for example, during the students protests this enabling learning to continue uninteruppted . Dr Beukes spoke on how she had managed the change at University of Namibia in the Centre for Open Distance and eLearning so that all staff were on board. 
  • e/Merge Africa Pre-Conference Session: It was a delight to organize this session and lead a discussion where we tackled a Higher Education challenge that some participants were facing using a methodology called “Peer Assist”  
  • Chairing a session on Blogger Skills for Self-employed, Small and Medium Enterprises where two researchers made excellent presentations on: Africa Talks eLearning: A New Online Learning Platform for Journalists by Casey Frechette from the University of South Florida, USA and Facilitating Distance Learning in a Virtual Classroom: UNSSC Success Factors, Tools, Tips and Techniques by Moyomola Bolarin from the United Nations Staff College (UNSSC) in Italy.
  • Viewing the exhibition by Biblica Alexandria, one of the world’s oldest library. The Library uses technology a lot and  strategically through digital museums making it easier to view ancient Egyptian artifacts from various angles which can not be done in a physical museum. 
Exploring Cairo
It was a pleasure to explore parts of Cairo during our spare time and after the Conference. The Conference hosts organized a very powerful dinner for participants outside the Gize Pyramids. The performances and narration of the pyramids during the dinner was excellent. We also witnessed the launch of Sa Wawa an Innovation Company which was done in flamboyant style. 

Together with the e/Merge Africa team, I visited the Police Museum which afforded us a panoramic view of Cairo. We then proceeded to the Size Pyramids as we bypassed the majestic River Nile. Words do not give me justice to explain our experiences as I saw the ancient Pyramids for the first time. Suffice to say I was lost in wonder to notice such majestic construction which was done many hundreds to years ago before most parts of the world had experienced civilisation. We were as it were taken back in time as we rode on camels and horse chariots through the desert to have a clearer view of the pyramids. After this visit we visited a shop where were taken through the process of how painting is done on papyrus with all of us buying governors from the shop and also buying perfumes downstairs made from natural plants. What a historic and educative trip this was to Egypt, one of the leading tourist destinations in Africa! Below is a photo of Jerome, myself and Mohammed at the Pyramids.

Some observations
  • Cairo is one of Africa’s most populated cities. We stayed in New Cairo with a population of 5 million while old Cairo has 20 million people! Imagine that!
  • Egypt has strong family ties. Outside our hotel we would see families coming to relax and have meals every evening. In old Cairo we saw families having tea in the streets as late as midnight when we were returning form the Conference organized dinner.
  • The strides made in ICTs especially ICTs in education were evident during the eLearning Africa Conference. There is much that other African nations can learn from Egypt with regards to use of technology in teaching and learning. 
  • The Egyptians are very hospitable and love to welcome visitors. 

Vocational Education and Training Development Symposium in Namibia

Group Photo of Symposium Delegates at College Hotel

In the last week of August 2016, I attended a Vocational Education and Training Development Symposium at the Namibia University of Science and Technology in Windhoek, Namibia. The Symposium organised by the Namibia University of Science and Technology (NUST) and the University of Röstock, Germany was supported by the Volkswagen (VW) Foundation. The Symposium brought together representatives from 16 countries to establish networks for increased opportunities for research and collaboration between VET practitioners. The symposium was held under the theme “Current situation and development of further education research in Vocational Education and Training in Sub-Saharan Africa”. 

Objective of Symposium
The main objective of the Symposium was to develop a framework for the establishment of a training system for Vocational Education and Training (VET) at postgraduate level in Sub-Saharan African universities. Participants were drawn from various higher educational and Vocational Education and Training institutions, Government departments and regulatory institutions. 

Official Opening
The Symposium was officially opened by the Vice Chancellor of the Namibia University of Science and Technology (NUST), Professor Tjama Tjivikua. He noted that Namibia needed to take cognisance of the fact the role VET needs to play in Namibia to achieve Vision 2030, was dependent on the quality of systems, instructors and facilities. “Professional skills alone are not adequate to churn out well-trained artisans. There is a need to train instructors in Technical Education Didactics for the effective transfer of skills.” 

Prof. Friedhelm Eicker, University of Rostock and Prof. Bernd Lennartz, University of Siegen who were Chairpersons of the Symposium highlighted the background of the Symposium. They noted that TVET experts of various theoretical and practical fields and especially TVET junior scientists from South Africa, Mozambique, Ethiopia and other African states  find it difficult to analyse and reflect the existing situation and foreseeable developments of TVET in Sub-Saharan Africa. Therefore, it is difficult to bring the Sub-Saharan achievements, the findings and the results into the international scientific discussions on TVET and to the TVET networks. The Symposium therefore offered a unique opportunity to participants from Sub-Saharan African countries and from other countries to initiate the discussion about TVET and the education and further education of the vocational educators. 

Ullrich Kinne, Deputy Head of Mission at the German Embassy in Namibia, underscored his country’s reputable vocational education system which he encouraged others to emulate. He emphasised the need to address challenges that hinder the growth of the sector in Sub-Saharan Africa, such as the lack of qualified staff  and the high number of dropouts. 

Keynote Presentations
Four (4) keynote presentations were made by eminent scholars and researchers. 
The symposium had parallel sessions held on 23rd and 24th August 2016. On 23rd August with a total of thirty papers presented at the parallel sessions with the following themes: 
  • “Vocational Education and Training – Basics for Teaching and Research in Vocational  Education and Training at Universities”.
  • Establishment of a VET-system with focus on further education – presentation of ideas on the motivation and establishment of a further education system, especially in universities in Sub-Sahara Africa
  • What are concepts or conditions of success for a networked VET learning and teaching (oriented on competence, working practice, flexible, etc.) and especially for a networked further education system in VET? 

Symposium Discussions

The discussions, the examples and the statements showed that it adopting cannot concepts of Vocational Education from Europe, the Anglo-American or the Asian education market was not a viable solution for African nations. It is also not productive to aim at a common African solution. Each African country has its own experience, ideas, possibilities and political agenda, what results in certain financial resources, administrative structures and pre-developed education frameworks. Zhao Zhiqun from China observed: “The regions must create individual strategies for TVET.”

Monday, December 12, 2016

Experiences of Students Regarding the Use of Facebook for Mentoring: A Case of Writing Centre

Over the last 15 years, many South African universities have established Writing Centres as places to provide academic writing support to their students. The services offered are mostly free and voluntary and as such, there are no strict regulations regarding who should use them, and how often they should visit. Consequently, writing centres especially the newly established ones struggle to monitor the progress of the students they have helped once they have left the place, or even reach students in the places where they continue to write in order to offer additional support to students, which could positively influence their writing self-efficacy. 

This design-based research case study reports on an intervention run by one such writing centre where social media, specifically Facebook due to its popularity among students, was explored as a technology that can be adopted to reach and offer help to students beyond the confines of its physical space. 

The study adopted Social Cognitive Theory as its theoretical framework. Eight participants from a BTech class in the Public Relations programme were purposively selected and offered an immersive eight-week experience of blended mentoring by the researcher who is also a writing centre consultant. Qualitative data was collected before the intervention using individual semistructured interviews, and after the intervention using focus group discussions. Findings from the pre-study interviews revealed that participants were mainly concerned about the protection of their privacy if social media were to be adopted for academic purposes. They also revealed that participants mostly preferred seeking help from peers. Findings further revealed that participants based their choice to seek help from a non-peer mainly on emotional reasons - preferring to seek help mainly from people they perceived to inspire positive feelings in them. 

Post-study findings revealed a positive shift in the attitudes of participants. Firstly, they were satisfied with the security settings of a closed Facebook group especially that it guaranteed non-intrusion into their personal accounts. Secondly, the social presence of writing centre consultant on Facebook increased the number of visitations to the writing centre’s Facebook site, which also directly contributed to increased face-to-face visits with the writing consultant. Thirdly, using the Facebook wall to reflect on face-to-face consultations increased opportunities for vicarious learning experiences, and thus contributed to the overall increase in the participants’ writing self-efficacy for writing task on which they were mentored. 

This study was undertaken by Khanyisile Ngodwana from the Walter Sisulu University in South Africa as part of her Master of Eduation degree at the University of Cape Town. The full study is available on: Experiences of Students Regarding the Use of Facebook for Mentoring:

Thursday, December 1, 2016

An Investigation of Mobile-Mediated Social Learning Using Socio-Constructivism

Mobile phones are hardly used for teaching and learning in the study setting, the Polytechnic of Namibia. Formal learning that is widespread in the study setting does not allow the design of authentic learning tasks. Nevertheless, mobile learning allows the design of authentic learning tasks and enables students to construct knowledge socially in an informal learning environment that facilitates interaction and collaboration. Learning is a boundless social activity that takes place through engagement with others. As learning takes place through interaction, it cannot be confined to the classroom; it should involve transition between formal and informal learning. Learning is hence not confined to didactic methods and does not only take place through transmission of knowledge. New forms of learning are emerging whereby student interaction is enabled by technological tools, unlike formal learning that does not necessitate online tools. Mobile devices might thus be used to mediate convergence of formal and informal learning. 

This study was aimed to investigate how mobile-mediated social learning converges formal and informal learning, using a socio-constructivist approach. The study was conducted in the Department of Languages at the Polytechnic of Namibia in two phases, the pilot phase that was conducted in 2012, and the main study that was conducted in 2013. The study involved a total of ten students doing Language in Practice. 

Mobile applications, social media tools inclusive, have potential to change the traditional pattern of learning. They enable social construction of knowledge. As a social media tool, WhatsApp was used in this study as a platform for the participants in the study to exchange ideas and construct knowledge collaboratively. 

The WhatsApp tool that was used in the study is popular among students and is used both in and out of the institution and could thus be used to establish convergence of formal and informal learning. In addition to instant messaging, another key affordance of WhatsApp is its ability to form a closed group of participants that interact with other iii students, the instructor and the community at large. This tool paved the way for authentic learning that led to convergence. 

The study was a case study of qualitative nature but also drew on action research, and it adopted an interpretive approach to data analysis and interpretation. Multiple sources of evidence were used to collect data, i.e. individual open-ended guided interviews, artefacts in the form of an authentic task using WhatsApp, and focus group discussion. The study revealed that the pedagogical design of an authentic task mediated by a social media tool, WhatsApp, where a sub-community of students interact with others and the larger community results in cognitive convergence of formal and informal learning. A closed group of students using the tool has potential to converge formal and informal learning cognitively through shared understanding. Thus, using a social media tool that students find motivating in an authentic context brings in cognitive convergence of formal and informal learning if the instructor observes activities and provides guidance. 

Key words: socio-constructivism, convergence, formal learning, informal learning, mobile-learning, social learning, authentic learning.

This study by Elina Ithindi of the Namibian University of Science and Technology was part of her Master of Education degree at the University of Cape Town. The full study is available from: An Investigation of Mobile-Mediated Social Learning Using Socio-Constructivism