Saturday, December 12, 2015

OER and Open Textbooks part of solution to the current Higher Education crisis

Principal Investigator Cheryl Hodgkinson-Williams reflects on recent upheavals in higher education centring around costs and access to educational opportunities. With the ROER4D project entering the final 18 months of OER research, she considers how OER and Open Textbooks might be part of the solution to what is an impending higher education crisis.
Around the world students are or have been engaged in protests against the current state of higher education in their respective countries. Recent protests in countries in the so-called Global North (e.g. United Kingdom, Germany, Spain) and the Global South (e.g. Bangladesh, India and South Africa) indicate widespread discontent with the current provision and financial models in higher education. This deep unhappiness about the lack of affordable access to relevant higher education has centred around issues such as the imposition of tuition fees (e.g. Germany), high tuition fees (e.g. South Africa), cuts to education spending (e.g. Spain), the imposition of tax on tuition fees (e.g. Bangladesh), the discontinuation of scholarships (e.g. India), transformation or ‘decolonisation’ of universities (e.g.South Africa) and full education reform (e.g. Chile).
The emergence of the ‘Open Education’ movement has been hailed as a part of a workable response to some of these genuine challenges in higher education. Open Education embraces fairly new forms of web-enabled activities such as Open Educational Resources (OER), Open Textbooks, and Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs). OER and Open Textbooks are being promoted as a response to the demand for affordable and current learning materials for students (and lecturers), and MOOCs as a way of providing expert and cost-effective tuition.
In countries in the Global North great strides are being taken at the moment to harness the cost-savings of OER and Open Textbooks in particular. In the past week the U.S. Department of Education and the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy announced that they would be proposing a new regulation that would require “all copyrightable intellectual property created with Department grant funds to have an open license”. Apart from potential cost savings OER also allow for the contribution of perspectives alternate to the dominant views expressed in traditional textbooks, offering lecturers and students the opportunity to share their particular curricula standpoints. While the cost benefits of Open Textbooks are already being explored in a number of US institutions (e.g. University of Maryland University College), they are yet to be established in the educational institutions in the Global South. The potential of OER to challenge the prevailing perspectives and offer different interpretations is yet to be fully realised.
Responding to the challenges for more accessible, affordable and relevant in specific contexts in the Global South, the Research on Open Educational Resources for Development (ROER4D) Project has as its main aim the provision of evidence-based research from a number of countries in South America, Sub-Saharan Africa and Southeast Asia on the use and impact of OER. Amongst others it includes studies on the cost-effectiveness and quality of OER in the Philippines, factors influencing the adoption of OER in higher education in Mongolia, academics’ perceptions of OER contribution in India and South Africaacademics’ practices in creating MOOCs as OER in South Africa, teacher educators’ co-creation of learning and teaching materials in India and Colombiateacher educators’ localisation of existing OER in India and Malaysia, teachers changing beliefs and practices with sustained OER engagement in East Africa, teachers’ engagement with an OER library in Afghanistan,student teachers’ use of OER in Sri Lanka as well as students’ use of OER in Chile. All these projects aim to better understand how open education  can make the cost of educational materials more readily available, more economical and more pertinent to the needs of students and teachers.
Investigating how learning materials can be more obtainable, cheaper and suitable to students is part of the complex higher education ‘ecosystem’ that needs to be unravelled to address the growing discontent. While this situation affecting higher education is not new, it is deepening as a result of a range of confounding issues including controversial government or institutional stances on higher education provision within the global economic downturn and is needing more thoughtful responses than ever before. The ROER4D Project will provide some insights into how OER in particular are being used and under what circumstances OER are having an impact on some of the concerns raised by students and educators such as affordable and relevant higher education.

Friday, December 11, 2015

Use research expertise to drive entrepreneurial growth

Universities must use their research expertise to drive entrepreneurial growth through creation of businesses for the country, a former Vice Chancellor of the University of Winneba, Prof. Jophus Anamuah-Mensah, has said.

As seedbeds for scientific research breakthroughs and technological innovation, he said universities should create an environment that encourage and promote university start-ups.

 “Universities in Ghana could play a greater role in economic development of the country if they can transfer research knowledge into economic growth and employment generation, he stated.
Prof. Anamuah-Mensah was addressing the 12th congregation of the Ghana Technology University College (GTUC) last Saturday, in Accra.

The ceremony was on the theme “Techno-Entrepreneurship: The Gateway to National Development”.
Out of the 1,132 students that graduated, 205 were awarded postgraduate degrees and 927 diploma and undergraduate degrees.

A new model
According to Prof. Anamuah-Mensah the old training model of universities that prepared people to automatically enter into the world of work, once they held a paper certificate did not specify their competencies and skills, and also was no more.

He said, that was rapidly being replaced by a model that emphasised on disciplinary competencies, creative, critical and innovative skills, communication and problem-based skills.

He said there was, therefore, a mismatch between skill-sets required in the world of work and those experienced by graduates in their training.
“As a result, the country is confronted with increasing number of graduates who hold certificates but are unemployed,” Prof Anamuah-Mensah said.

Universities should commercialise
Therefore, for universities to contribute to job creation and wealth, Prof. Anamuah-Mensah said universities needed to set up their own commercial ventures and emphasise on product development.

“Countries are prospering because of the university’s role on the impact of technology on businesses. One university that has transformed its locality and nation is Massachusetts Institute of Technology,” Prof. Anamuah-Mensah stated.

By encouraging faculty members to pursue private venture outside the research lab, he said the institute start-up companies generated $240 billion worth of sales per year and provided an additional 1.1 million new jobs for the US economy.

Therefore, to encourage techno-entrepreneurship in the universities, Prof. Anamuah-Mensah said there was the need to adjust university programmes to include techno-entrepreneurship.

The President of the GTUC, Dr Osei K. Darkwa in his address, said the increased student numbers for access to tertiary education put a lot of pressure on public universities hence the need for private participation.

To compliment governments efforts, GTUC has established network campuses in five out of the 10 regions in Ghana with sub-regional learning centres in Togo and Gabon.
Considering the role of professionals in the country’s development, he said the college was committed to ensuring that graduates were adequately prepared for the job.



Thursday, December 10, 2015

Reflecting on Graduation from High School

It has been 30 years since I walked out of the gates of high school at Kafue Secondary School in December 1985. Then I was a young teen at 17 years old. With so much hope for the future in terms of education and all! I had dreams of pursuing a career in Science but through God’s providence my career path was in Education after I went to do a Bachelors degree in Education at the University of Zambia, majoring in Mathematics and doing a minor in Computer Studies. So then what are my thoughts of my days at secondary school that culminated in my graduation from Kafue Secondary School with a motto: “Citizens of Two Kingdoms”?

Firstly, my entry into form 1 at Kafue Secondary School in 1981 was marked with some anxiety. For the first time, I would have to spend at least three months away from my parents and siblings. Would I cope? Mind you in those days, mockery at boarding schools was a given. Would I be mocked and bullied in such a way that I would fail to stay on at boarding school? Thankfully, a form 2 by the name of Musonda Kabemba liked me and became my protector! He was a cadet and so the other form 2’s could not mess around with me. Off course, I had to show appreciation, so when my dad brought me some supplies such as well prepared beef and chicken I shared with him :-). I quickly settled into the routines of boarding life. Cleaning hostels (inside and outside) including classrooms. Interestingly, most boys did not like to be assigned to clean the toilets. They used them but didn’t want to clean them. Mmm. 

Secondly, the positive influence of religion at Kafue Boys cannot be missed. Our school being a mission school run by the United Church of Zambia, we had to have bible readings and prayers daily except Saturday’s. On Mondays, Wednesdays and Thursdays these were held in  the School Chapel. On Tuesdays we had devotions in our respective classes. On Fridays we had them in our various houses.  In addition, Religious Education (RE) was compulsory in all classes. One of my close friends, Christian became a Christian after our Bible Knowledge teacher, Carol Eathorne, made an appeal to students to not only acquire head knowledge of the Bible but give their lives to Christ. I became a Christian after listening to a visiting preacher Joe Imakando preach on the necessity of Being Born Again from John 3. To God be the glory. Clubs such as Scripture Union (which I was actively involved in), School Choir, Preachers Club, Sunday School played a useful role in developing religious disciplines. 

Thirdly, a culture of hard work was embedded into our lives at school. I have mentioned earlier on how we had to clean our respective spaces in the hostels and classes. Students also were active at the school farm which had lots of vegetables and wheat! The culture of hard work also extended to academic work. For some time Kafue Secondary School was one of the top performing schools in Zambia. I recall in 1985 when we were about to sit for our School Certificate exams and being asked by one of our teachers if we would do very well. Our response was that doing very well was guaranteed. Beating Roma Girls in Lusaka was our goal. And that goal was achieved! Kafue Boys had among the best teachers in Zambia with a balanced combination of local and international teachers mostly from church missionary organisations. The teachers were committed to their jobs and us as pupils inside and outside the classroom. Whether they were performing the role of teacher, house parent, form teacher, preacher etc they put in their best. They ensured we were adequately prepared for our examinations and in a spiritual sense for the Final Examination! Some of the teachers I recall who had a positive influence on me were: Mr. David Grogan, Mr. Tom Marshall, Miss Junza Siafwa, Mrs. Carol Eathorne, Mr Stephen Winter, Mr. Derryck Orridge, Mrs. Siluyele to mention just a few.

30 years on! Kafue Secondary School, opened in 1966 as a Secondary School, is still standing and contributing to the Education Agenda in Zambia. I thank God for enabling me pass through the doors of that school. I thank God for the many lessons I learnt there. The friends I made: Christian, Johnson, Barnabas etc. For the knowledge I gained there. But most important of all for the salvation I found in Christ there. 

Monday, November 23, 2015

Creative Digital Media Forum

Last Tuesday, the 17th June, 2004 I was privileged to attend the first ever Creative Digital Media Forum at Mulungushi International Conference Centre in Lusaka. The Forum brought together the creative sector and stakeholders from the Government and education with an interest in creative digital media in Zambia to discuss the opportunities and challenges in the sector. The Forum also sought to look at how creative digital media was being organised and how it can contribute to development in Zambia. Internationally, digital media is providing access to information, knowledge and access to services in the education, health, tourism, agriculture, mining, business and public sectors. In Zambia, a Diploma in Digital Media programme commenced in February 2014 at the Evelyn Hone College of Applied Arts and Commerce. I was part of the team that visited the class (in photo below) on 16th June, 2014. It is quite evident that the youths are very creative and require support to be even more creative.

The Forum looked at topics such as:
  • Digital Media Industry in Zambia
  • The Role of Digital Media in Communicating Information and Ideas
  • Digital Media and the Creative Arts Sector
In attendance at the Forum was the Irish Ambassador to Zambia, His Excellency Finbar O'Brien. Key speakers were:
  • Mr. Victor Makashi, Director of Art and Culture, Ministry of Tourism and Arts
  • Mr Jerome Morrissey, Chief Executive Officer, GESCI
  • Mr. Daddy Chitalu, Tec hnical Director, Muvi TV
It was so encouraging to see a former student of mine, Mwanabibi Sikamo, whom I taught over 12 years ago, make a presentation on her she had creatively used a blog to discuss issues of gender that affect young ladies in Zambia and Africa. Read her blog for example: What's My Name? 

Of Heresies, Heretics, and the (im)possibility of Hope in Higher Education

(This blog article is taken from Paul Prinsloo's blog: Open Distance Teaching and Learning)
Amidst the absolute horror, fear and nausea triggered by events such as the recent attacks in #Beirut, #Paris and #Mali, and the continued sponsored and condoned violence in #Palestine and #Yemen, there is, I suspect, a deep-seated questioning of “how is all of this still possible in the 21st century?”
What happened to ‘progress’ and the belief that a better world is possible and achievable? Where does the current (and possible permanent?) disillusionment leave the belief that education is the key driver to ‘progress’ and will, per se, result in a more just and equal society? Last week a meme circulated on social media with a picture of Malala Yousafzai with the words “With guns you can kill terrorists. With education you can kill terrorism.”
I wish I could believe. But I cannot. Not that I don’t want to believe, but somehow I suspect that we overestimate the potential of education, on its own, to address generations of injustice, poverty and inequality. Call me a heretic if you want, allow me to explore the possibility that unbridled economic growth and progress is a heresy. And education, as this heresy’s servant.
Allow me then, for a brief moment of your time, to reconsider our continued and uncritical belief that humanity, progressively gets better… As conversation partner to this blog I take the work by John Gray (2002, 2004) and Zygmunt Bauman (2004, 2011, 2012). Considering the work of Gray, John Banville said that “John Gray has always been the odd-sheep-out” and John Preston called Gray a “prophet of doom.” Bauman’s work has also been up for criticism and his work characterised as full of “sombre warnings and dark judgments.” Despite these criticisms, I agree with the assessment that “"Bauman on a bad day is still far more stimulating than most contemporary social thinkers.”
In contemplating education in this interregnum (Best, 2015), allow me then to reflect on some of the points made by John Gray and Zygmunt Bauman.
Gray (2002) suggests that “The uses of knowledge will always be shifting and crooked as humans are themselves. Humans use what they know to meet their most urgent needs – even if the result is ruin” (p. 28). Regarding humanity’s belief in progress as inevitable Gay (2004) suggests that “the core of the belief in progress is that human values and goals converge in parallel with our increasing knowledge. The twentieth century shows the contrary. Human beings use the power of scientific knowledge to assert and defend the values and goals they already have. New technologies can be used to alleviate suffering and enhance freedom. They can, and will, also be used to wage war and strengthen tyranny” (p. 106; emphasis added).
Considering the advances since the Enlightenment against the backdrop of the absolute horrors of the two World Wars and the banality of evil as represented by the mushroom clouds over Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the Holocaust and the Vietnam war, one would have expected that humanity would permanently shied away from the abyss. And yet we didn’t and we still don’t.
Instead of doing everything we possibly can to steer clear of the abyss, we are “messing with forces on a grand scale” (Martin, 2006, p. 15) – on a number of levels. Amidst the many challenges facing humanity are, according to Martin (2006) environmental collapse, extreme poverty, unstoppable global migrations, non-state actors with extreme weapons, and violent religious extremism resulting in a new Dark Age.
Depending on your worldview, many suggest that higher education have unreservedly bought into the neoliberal project of globalisation as championed by the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, the World Trade Organisation and the corporate-industrial-military complex. Economic growth is a leitmotif in curricula and is sold (often literally) as prerequisite for human progress despite evidence suggesting that “economic growth does not translate into the growth of equality” (Bauman, 2011, p. 50). Amidst the unbridled consumerism and decadent and rampant (if not rapacious) capitalism, inequalities have increased and the number of displaced people is the biggest in human history. The millions of displaced and permanently unemployed are classified as disposable, as the collateral waste of progress, those who have become permanently redundant suggest a new normal, the new, permanent “Other” (Bauman, 2004).
We live in times where “the incomprehensible has become routine” (Bauman, 2006, p. 14). As we built higher walls around our gated communities, closed our borders, and increased our entry requirements, our fears just got worst.
Fear is at its most fearsome when it is diffuse, scattered, unclear, unattached, unanchored, free floating, with no clear address or cause; when it haunts us with no visible rhyme or reason, when the menace we should be afraid of can be glimpsed everywhere but is nowhere to be seen (Bauman, 2006, p. 2)
Welcome to the 21st century.
As humanity spirals from one genocide to the next, we have increasing reason to question the gospel of Progress. John Gray (2004) state that the “belief in progress is the Prozac of the thinking classes” (p. 3). I would like to add to this, that the unquestioned belief that education, on its own, can make a difference is most probably co-prescribed with Prozac.
Gray (2004) makes the claim that “History is not an ascending spiral of human advance, or even an inch-by inch crawl to a better world. It is an unending cycle in which changing knowledge interacts with unchanging human needs. Freedom is recurrently won and lost in an alternation that includes long periods of anarchy and tyranny, and there is no reason to suppose that this cycle will ever end” (p. 3). Gray therefore contests the view that the Enlightenment set humanity on an irreversible path of progress where advances in science and technology will, per se, result in a better world. For many Gray’s statements amount to heresies, such as his claim that “The lesson of the century that has just ended is that humans use the power of science not to make a new world but to reproduce the old one – sometimes in newly hideous ways… Knowledge does not make us free” (2004, p. 6).
After the recent events in #Beirut #Paris #Yemen and #Palestine the statement by Gray that “The most striking development in politics in the past two decades is that this apocalyptic mentality has gone mainstream” (p. 10). In the light of the increasing influence of religious fundamentalism (whether in America or Iraq), terror has become “privatised” - that cannot be tolerated, but also not eliminated (2004, p. 11).
Gray (2004) furthermore states that no one cold have foreseen that “irrationality would continue to flourish alongside rapid advances in science and technology” (p. 18). Even the hope sold by Silicon valley that technology will solve all of humanity’s problems is without foundation as “[t]here is no power in the world that can ensure that technology is used only for benign purposes” (2004, p. 20). He continues:
"We are not masters of the tools we have invented. They affect our lives in ways we cannot control – and often cannot understand. The world today is a vast, unsupervised laboratory, in which a multitude of experiments are simultaneously underway" (p. 21).
"We can’t control our new technologies because we don’t really grasp the totality of their effects. And there is a deeper reason why we are not masters of our technologies: they embody dreams of which we are not conscious and hopes that we cannot bear to give up" (p. 22).
Sobering is the proposal by Gray that homo sapiens is actually homo rapiens with ambitions that are limitless, but living on an earth with resources that are irrevocably finite.
Our present way of life is more prone to disruption than most people think, and its fragility is increasing. We tend to think that as global networks widen and deepen, the world will become a safer place, but in many contexts the opposite is true. As human beings become closely interlinked, breakdowns in one part of the world spread more readily to the rest (p. 61)
In the light of the fact that democracy is seen and sold (literally) as one of the biggest (and deadliest) exports of the United States and its partners/alliances, and the claim that education should help spread the belief in one-size-fits-all type of democracy (Giroux, 2015), Gray (2004) states that “After all the babble about the irresistible spread of democracy and free markets, the reality is war, protectionism and the shifty politics of secrecy and corruption in other words, history as usual” (p. 66).
Despite the advances in science improving the lives of many, Gray (2004) states “Science cannot end the conflicts of history. It is an instrument that humans use to achieve their goals, whether winning wars or curing the sick, alleviating poverty or committing genocide” (p. 70).
So where does this leave us? How do we then teach without necessarily believing? How is hope possible in this interregnum?
A good place to start will be to acknowledge that “Knowledge is not an unmixed good; it can be as much a curse as a blessing. If the superseded science in the first half of the twentieth century could be used to wage two hideously destructive world wars, how will the vastly superior science of today be used?” (Gray, 2004, pp. 70-71). I really think that all curricula should have a warning attached to them – advising curriculum developers, instructional designers, students, and quality assurers (to mention but a few) that “knowledge is not an unmixed good”…
Is education willing to acknowledge that “the knowledge maps of the past have, to a large extent, been proven to be fragile and (possibly) the illegitimate offspring of unsavory liaisons between ideology, context and humanity’s gullibility in believing in promises of unconstrained scientific progress” (Prinsloo, 2016 – in press).
Will we teach different curricula if we believed that “history might be cyclical, not progressive, with the struggles of the earlier eras returning and being played out against a background of increased scientific knowledge and technological power” (Gray, 2004, p. 101)?
How do we help students to “read the world” (Freire, 1972, p. 120) – to recognise the metanarratives, the curricula sold-as-truth, engage with claims and counter-claims, realise (in more than one sense) their agency as constrained, entangled, fractured and possible?
Realising, at least for me, that history may be cyclical, that knowledge and advances in technology may serve evil or justice, give me a sense of purpose, if not hope. In this permanent interregnum where “the old is dying and the new cannot be born” (Gramsci, 1971, p. 110), a certain amount of morbidity and skepticism may be in order.
Bauman, Z. (2004). Wasted lives. Modernity and its outcasts. Cambridge, UK: Polity Press.
Bauman, Z. (2011). Collateral damage. Social inequalities in a global age. Cambridge, UK: Polity Press.
Bauman, Z. (2012). On education. Conversations with Riccardo Mazzeo. Cambridge, UK: Polity Press.
Best, S. (2015). Education in the interregnum: an evaluation of Zygmunt Bauman’s liquid-turn writing on education. British Journal of Sociology of Education, 1-18.
Freire, Paulo. Pedagogy of the oppressed. Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin.
Giroux, H. A. (2015). Democracy in Crisis, the Specter of Authoritarianism, and the Future of Higher Education. Journal of Critical Scholarship on Higher Education and Student Affairs, 1(1), 7.
Gramsci, A. (1971). Selections from the Prison Notebooks of Antonio Gramsci. Edited by Q. Hoare and G. N. Smith. New York, NY: International Publishers.
Gray, J. (2002). Straw dogs. Thoughts on humans and other animals. London, UK: Granta Books.
Gray, J. (2004). Heresies. Against progress and other illusions. London, UK: Granta Books.
Prinsloo, P. (2016 – in press). Metaliteracy, networks, agency and praxis: an exploration. Chapter accepted in T. Mackey and T. Jacobson (eds.), Metaliteracy in Practice

Sunday, November 22, 2015

Secret Teacher: schools turn a blind eye to bad managers as long as they hit targets

As soon as John* became a deputy head it was clear that he did not have the skills to deal with his team. He was an outstanding teacher, but couldn’t handle his new role and became autocratic. He now dictates how his staff should work, stands over them, checks every little thing they do and undermines them at every opportunity.
As with many excellent teachers, he is a terrible manager. Once he complained about a display outside a classroom. I thought it was a good example of quality work, but John disagreed, criticising the teacher in front of her teaching assistants (TAs) – and me – for not double mounting and allowing the “messy” work of a child with special educational needs to be displayed. He demanded that it be taken down and put up properly, leaving the teacher visibly shaken. I helped her re-do the work; it didn’t look better, but it was done to his specifications, and so was deemed acceptable.
Even if it was a shoddy effort – which it wasn’t – speaking to a colleague in such a derogatory manner was unprofessional. A quiet word, or suggesting that a TA who was particularly good at displays might be able to give some pointers would have been a better course of action. John is now a headteacher.
This is not an isolated case. Often teachers who are outstanding practitioners, producing amazing lessons and getting great results, can be completely out of their depth when promoted to management.
I’ve been a key stage leader and a primary practitioner for years, but before that I managed a team of 200 in a large organisation. I had a lot of training in personnel and management issues, whiling away many hours investigating theories of team building and leadership, which stood me in good stead for leading a team of teachers.
But most managers in teaching haven’t had training in how to give positive feedback, they don’t know how to build a team or how to get the best out of people. They do not realise that there is more to leading a team than making sureOfsted is happy and results are good. This permeates up into the senior leadership team, who do nothing about outstanding teachers who bully their staff and adopt an unprofessional approach because they are getting the results the school needs and ensuring their students’ progress. If the school data dashboard looks great, the fact that some of the less well-paid staff are not happy is not a priority.
My friend Lucy* is a TA. Her boss is an outstanding teacher, but she couldn’t manage her way out of a paper bag. She expects the TAs to stay late to complete tasks over and above the hours for which they are paid and makes pointed comments if they don’t. She has never said anything positive about Lucy’s work, only criticised her time management and lack of commitment to the job because she goes home at 4pm, which is when she is paid until.
Her behaviour has taken its toll on her team: she goes through TAs like there is no tomorrow. Lucy has gone from being a confident young TA to dreading encounters with her manager, and there are frequently tears among the staff in her key stage. Alarm bells should be ringing among the senior leaders of this school – and yet, because of her excellent results with the children, the school has never questioned her on it.
If, as a manager in the private sector, I had had such a rapid turnover of staff there would have been serious questions asked at my annual performance management review (which incidentally, was always pay-related) and I may well have found myself not only failing to receive a bonus or pay rise, but worse still, being taken down the competency route, however good I was at the rest of my job.
Part of the problem lies with the structure of the teaching profession. The only way to progress is to go into management. You can become a specialist leader in education (SLE) for the kudos, but that’s actually about developing leadership skills not – as the old advanced skills teachers were – about developing outstanding classroom teaching. There are some outstanding teachers who know their skills lie in the classroom and choose to remain there without taking on the extra responsibilities (and pay) of managing staff. But there are others, who come across brilliantly at interview and, of course, in the classroom, where they demonstrate their obvious teaching ability, and who get catapulted into positions they can’t handle.
When I worked in the private sector, promotion to managerial positions was a robust and difficult process. We weren’t just interviewed or observed doing our job, we had role-play activities and different scenarios to handle. The interviewing process for the final job I did involved conducting a performance management review with an employee who was failing in their person management. Even when I took the job, I was drilled within an inch of my life on Belbin and Myers-Briggs. John Adair’s action-centred leadership model became my bible. But most of all, I had training in how to deal with people, how to build teams – not flatten them.
We need to make sure great teachers have the right management training. After all, surely promoting happiness among colleagues is a crucial part of being a truly outstanding teacher.
*Names have been changed in this article.

Festival of eLearning Conference kicks off

The Festival of e-Learning officially started yesterday. The Festival of eLearning is an opportunity to deepen the network of e-Learning ex...